Gestalt is a German word. It talks about unified patterns, form, figure, or structure. Though Gestalts seven common principles.
Law of figure & ground. The figure is the foreground object , the ground is the background and everything that isnt the image.They are two different levels of focus.
Law of simplicity. Using slight variations and changes , using the simplest route to explain what’s going on. It is then stored in our memory , for us to make an instant recognition.
Law of similarity: When viewers perceive objects to look similar to one another they part the elements together as a pattern or group. This can create a message from a series of elements if out together in one illustration. Common elements can be size , colour and shape.
Law of closure. Your mind is made to fill the gaps unconsciously , even if the image is incomplete a humans eye will see the shape. Linked with logo forms along with stencil artwork.
Law of proximity. Focuses the viewer using a close arrangement of elements to create a general link between the objects. You could have 8 circles and one square , but as the viewer you would still perceive them as a group, even with the slight anomaly. Same effect can halogen when size of the objects is different.
Law of continuation. The eye is naturally drawn to a line or curve, we prefer to see one continuous line than several separate lines. Within composition it can be used to draw your eye to certain elements on the page through use of lines.
Law of parallelism. The objects appearing on the same baseline and paragraph ,so things seem to be heading in the same direction. We don’t like to see disorder , it wastes our time as a viewer as we don’t focus on the message.
If used wisely, you can convey any message, to a wider audience. Useful to know how to capture the greater audience, through a difference in shape, colour, size , texture etc.